I game. But not any old game.
For the past 7 years I have played (online) IL2 Sturmovik: Cliffs of Dover. This is a simulator that takes place during the crucial period in the UK’s history: The Battle of Britain.
I fly a Hawker Hurricane and until recently was a member of 32 Squadron, based at Biggin Hill. My aircraft was based on that flow by Peter Brothers, during the BoB. P2621 GZ-L.
During the early years, I decided the keyboard, as an input mechanism was not for me. I wanted to build my own, 1:1 scale 1939 Hawker Hurricane Instrument panel, with working gauges. As the years rolled by, I added more bits and pieces, extending the frame out. This allowed access to Trim Wheel, Rudder Trim and the H-Lever (unique in the Hurricane to work the undercarriage and flaps).
I also picked up some ‘real world’ Battle of Britain memorabilia along the way.
A few observations:
1. Hardboard panel Out of the shed, cut with a bog standard saw. Holes were cut using an axe-saw blade. The instrument holes were cut using a Dremel.
2. H-Lever This works as per the original. Made out of a cut up deodorant bottle, a piece of dowel, a drawer knob
from B & Q and a label knocked up in MS Publisher.
3. Emergency Boost Unobtainable and very rare. I had no choice than to make my own. I used a push/pull/twist switch from
Cut-Out Maplins. And another drawer knob from B&Q.
4. Gunsight Bar & Stroud MK II – Oval glassed as used during the Battle of Britain
5. Clock A genuine Smith’s 6 day clock, that would be found in aircraft of the period (Avro Anson, Bristol
Blenheim,Spitfire, Hurricane etc).
6. Morse Key Genuine Morse Key that was fitted to aircraft of the period.
7. Throttle, Pitch & Mixture. A bastardised Saitek Pro Throttle Quadrant was used.
8. Switch Gear All the switches are the genuine article. They have the stores number that went in to the genuine
aircraft of the period. They were made interchangeable between aircraft to keep things simple.
9. Gauges Some Servo, and Some Stepper motor driven. They all receive telemetry from the in game readings.
The fuel gauge and Undercarriage Indicator are unique to the Hurricane. So these were miracle finds.
10. Spade Grip Fully dampened assembly that would work a real Hurricane! The assembly includes authentic rudder
11. Frame Made from B&Q plastic pipe, painted cockpit green!
12. Seat This came out of Squadron Leader Skippers (the actor Robert Shaw) Hurricane from the 1969 film
The Battle of Britain.
Part I – The Galleries – Putting it all together
My idea gets off the ground. Sketching the template to some hardboard I found knocking around the shed! Once cut, a quick undercoat, then a satin black top coat. Finally pieced together to make sure (at this stage) it all (loosely) fits together. Click the picture(s) to enlarge.
Part II – Switchgear
Assembling some of the switch gear. The photo of the cockpit labels shows the original removed label, and ones that I made in MS Publisher underneath. The font was the hardest thing to replicate, as they didn’t have fonts in 1939, they had typefaces! Although I had original labels, I wanted to have ‘as new’ for my freshly delivered MkII Hurricane.
All the switches (apart from the fuel selector switch, this was created on a 3D printer) are the genuine article. They have the correct stores number and Air Ministry (AM) stamp in the right place! The date on the Undercarriage box is 1940.
The bulbs are genuine 12 volt gunsight bulbs and still have their original packaging.
In the photo of the Magneto switches. I was informed later on in my project, that I had the wrong ones. The ones I had were ‘long throw’ switches fitted in bombers (Wellington, Lancaster). So I had to go and track down the correct type. Which was successful.
All the switches were wired into a Leo Bodnar 0836X board which interfaces them to the PC. Click the picture(s) to enlarge.
Part III – The Bar & Stroud MKII Gunsight
One of the hardest things I thought I would have to do/fabricate was the Bar & Stroud MKII Gunsight. This was fitted to the Spitfire and Hurricane throughout the Battle of Britain. You can always tell a period gunsight for 1939/1940 as they are fitted with oval glass, not square which came in towards the end of 1940 early 1941.
All the parts are in resin, and it’s a right dockyard job putting them all together.
End result was worth it though. As can be seen. Click the picture(s) to enlarge.
Part IV – Panel assembly and gauge fitting
I was a bit naïve to think that the hardboard would take the weight of all the instruments. So had to reinforce the frame with more wooden bracing – it all adds weight.
The Compass calibration holder was a 3D print out. An original would cost about £50!
It all started to come together. The gap where the Blind Flying Panel (the rectangular part in the middle holding 6 instruments) is supposed to be there. This housed the pilots bank of “six” essential blind flying instruments. Turn & Slip, Climb & Descend, Artificial Horizon, Directional Gyro (which after some combat manoeuvres had to go through a tricky recalibration process), Altimeter, and finally Air Speed Indicator.
At this stage, I even had power to the Undercarriage Indicator. Red (gear up) and Green (gear down) LEDs. Click the picture(s) to enlarge.
Part V – Cockpit frame and more switch gear
The frame was made from B&Q 20mm plastic pipe. I did not have a plan, I just cut the height and length to how I was going to use it. If I am sat in the middle of it, I wanted everything I was going to use to fall to hand easily. Just like the pilots of the day did!
I used a part disassembled Saitek Pro Throttle, which was perfect to give me Throttle, Mixture and Pitch.
The unique Hawker Hurricane H-Lever, which is only found in the Hurricane (great design Mr Camm), was made from a deodorant bottle, some dowel, a 6L Water bottle lid, a door knob from B&Q, 4 x Micro switches and something I found in the shed to house it all together! Once it was wired up, it was bolted to the frame. When the lever is used on the left it raises (lever up) the undercarriage. Or lowers (lever down) the undercarriage. A small ‘gate’ locks the lever in position (I didn’t need this) so that the pilot can’t raise the undercarriage when on the ground.
I painted the frame in ‘as near as possible’ green paint used on the real aircraft (B&Q Bespoke).
Finally I fitted out the frame with: Radiator handle, Rudder Bias Trim Wheel, Elevator Trim Wheel (the Hurricane nor Spitfire had elevator trim), 3 x Position Fuel Switch, Morse Key and Dimmer switch (for the instrument lights).
Finally a full size control column (spade grip) was plumbed in. Click the picture(s) to enlarge.
Part VI – Finals
After about 4 years I had the cockpit where I wanted it.
The seat came out of the Hawker Hurricane piloted by ‘Sqn Ldr Skipper’ (the actor Robert Shaw – he of Jaws fame, who should have had a bigger boat)! The Hurricane in question starring in the 1969 film Battle of Britain. Here is a photo of Robert Shaw clambering out of his aircraft.
I made myself a small control panel. This is a single button press that can change in game views, flybys, start and stop in game video recording, that sort of thing. You can see it perched on my PC.
I finished the room off by buying a working (plugs in to the existing BT socket) 1940’s Bakelite phone. Which certainly looks the part! It has the most satisfying double ring! Click the picture(s) to enlarge.
Part VII – Actually ‘flying’
Every Sunday evening at 1845 I joined my fellow 32 Squadron pilots and entered the Battle of Britain Campaign.
The Campaign consisted of almost 200 people from around the world (the Aussies were up at 0400 their time to join in).
There were Germans (and some UK) flying for the Luftwaffe and the Brits (and some Germans) flying for the RAF. The Campaign progressed through the Battle of France, and then on to the Battle of Britain.
Most Squadrons (and Luftwaffe Staffels) has at least 13 flyers every Sunday. When you include AI flying the Luftwaffe bomber raids – that was a lot of people! The RAF alone had the following active fighter Squadrons (I have not included the bomber Squadrons):
111 Squadron (Hurricanes}
615 Squadron (Hurricanes)
64 Squadron (Spitfires)
Biggin Hill Wing
32 Squadron (Hurricanes)
501 Squadron (Hurricanes)
610 Squadron (Spitfires)
1 Squadron (Hurricanes)
43 Squadron (Hurricanes)
601 Squadron (Hurricanes/Spitfires)
Unfortunately, things went wrong with a few Sim software patches. This rumbled on for months. The Group I flew with moved on to other Sims (Battle of Stalingrad, Battle of Moscow and Battle of Kuban). I didn’t fancy flying German or Russian!
The people I flew with knew I was building a Sim Cockpit for Cliffs of Dover. So there were a few requests to keep them up to date with my build progress.
To that end, I made a couple of videos to accompany the build.
However, there is something I would like you to watch. The following video was produced by the people I fly with. I see this movie as a condensed Battle of Britain. From Baldwins opening message, to Churchills conclusion. A lot of respect went in to the making of this movie for pilots on both sides. People need to remember the sacrifice made by these brave young men. Their lives given in the name of freedom.
I do hope you watch, and enjoy, and maybe learn something.
The Beginning of the End
Active (player flying) RAF Squadrons
Non Active (AI Controlled) RAF Squadrons (you can have any Squadron ‘skin’ you like, as long as the artist knows what he is doing. The skinners have created some wonderfully authentic, period skins – as you can see for yourself).
Before I decided to build a fully working 1:1 Hawker Hurricane instrument panel. I built a small working desktop example. It worked, but it wasn’t what I wanted! I made three videos, all about 3 minutes in length, to show my fellow flyers what I was trying to do.
A few years later, after the panels themselves were completed, and instruments fitted. I made my first video showing the world how it all worked. There were a few ‘cockpit builders’ who were trying to achieve the same thing I was. As far as I knew, I was the only person to go the Hurricane route, everyone else built Spitfires. (Note, the Oil & Fuel pressure gauges had not been made, so they were just ‘placeholders’). The casual reader will never know what a pivotal moment this was!
I made a quick video of my room layout. It was supposed to show the working instruments, but I still had not fitted the working Oil & Fuel pressure gauges to the panel. So I ended up doing a small ‘Cliffs of Dover’ slideshow instead.
A video that pieced together all of my build photographs in to one montage.
An actual flying video! I was trying to show everything working!
Finally the Oil & Fuel pressure gauges reacting to in game data.
Battle of Britain – Memorabilia
In 1969, while at Junior School. One afternoon was spent in the school hall watching a presentation. The presentation and film was all about the soon to be released movie “The Battle of Britain”.
Ever since, I realised that particular summer of 1940, was indeed the RAF’s finest hour.
During my instrument panel building years (2011 – 2018). I decided to see what collectable wise was “out there”. One thing I did find out during my search across the world, was just how expensive it was for anything remotely having the “Battle of Britain” moniker attached!
I am privileged to own a unique piece of history.
I have a Christopher Ward timepiece that has been modelled on the Hawker Hurricane instruments. Aluminium wreckage recovered from Hurricane P2725’s Rolls Royce Merlin engine has been cut, intricately engraved and then lacquer-filled with a map of London, commemorating the heroic actions of RAF Flight Lieutenant Ray Holmes on Battle of Britain Day, 1940.
This Hurricane was flown by (as his rank was then) Sgt Ray Holmes, 504 Squadron, County of Nottingham.
On 15 September 1940, known as the Battle of Britain Day, Sergeant Holmes was flying a Hawker Hurricane fighter when he spotted a formation of three Dornier Do17 bombers of Kampfgeschwader 76 heading for central London, to make a bombing attempt. As he made an attack on one of the bombers, the bomber fired a flamethrower at him, and Holmes’ windscreen was covered in oil. The flamethrower, obviously intended for use on the ground, was not working properly at 16,000 feet, giving a jet of flame only some 100 yards long. The oil had not caught fire, and it was this that had found it’s way onto the Hurricane. Knowing that the airflow would clear the oil away, Ray Holmes waited for his view to be restored. As his windscreen cleared Ray realised that he was dangerously close to the Dornier, and ramming the stick forward, passed beneath the bomber.
“I made my attack on this bomber and he spurted out a lot of oil, just a great stream over my aeroplane. blotting out my windscreen. I couldn’t see a damn thing. Then, as the windscreen cleared, I suddenly found myself going straight into his tail. So I stuck my stick forward and went under him, practically grazing my head on his belly”.
He attacked the second Dornier, causing a crew member to bale out.
“I got to the stern of the aeroplane and was shooting at him when suddenly something white came out of the aircraft. I thought that a part of his wing had come away but in actual fact it turned out to be a man with a parachute coming out. I was travelling at 250 miles per hour, it all happened so quickly, but before I knew what had happened this bloody parachute was draped over my starboard wing. There was this poor devil on his parachute hanging straight out behind me, and my aeroplane was being dragged. All I could do was to swing the aeroplane left and then right to try to get rid of this man. Fortunately his parachute slid off my wing and down he went, and I thought, Thank heavens for that!”
Holmes then spotted the third Dornier still heading onwards, making directly for Buckingham Palace. Avoiding the bomber’s machine gunfire, Holmes quickly climbed ahead of it, then swung around to make a head-on attack on the Dornier. However upon firing discovered his machine guns failed. Holmes decided to ram the bomber hoping his plane could withstand the impact and cut through it. He flew his plane into the top-side of the German bomber, cutting off the rear tail section with his wing and causing the bomber to dive out of control and crash near Victoria tube station. His Hurricane was badly damaged, crashing near the grounds of Buckingham Palace. The pilot of the Dornier, Feldwebel Robert Zehbe, bailed out, only to die later of wounds suffered during the attack. Holmes bailed out injured but survived.
“As I fired, my ammunition gave out. I thought, Hell, he’s got away now. And there he was coming along and his tail looked very fragile and very inviting. So I thought I’d just take off the tip of his tail. So I went straight at it along him and hit his port fin with my port wing. I thought, That will just take his fin off and he’ll never get home without the tail fin. I didn’t allow for the fact that the tail fin was actually part of the main fuselage. Although I didn’t know it at the time, I found out later that I had knocked off the whole back half of the aircraft including the twin tails”.
Holmes was feted by the press as a war hero for his saving of Buckingham Palace. As the RAF did not practice ramming as an air combat tactic, this was considered an impromptu manoeuvre, and an act of selfless courage. This event became one of the defining moments of the Battle of Britain and elicited a congratulatory note to the RAF from Queen Wilhelmina of the Netherlands who had witnessed the event. The bomber’s engine was later exhibited at the Imperial War Museum in London.
In 2004 archaeologists unearthed parts of Holmes’s Hurricane for a Channel 5 television documentary, in which Holmes visited the site near Buckingham Palace Road and was shown the fighter’s control column or “joy-stick” which he had last held 64 years earlier.
Appropriately, the firing button was still set to “FIRE”. The aircraft’s engine was recovered, and it is now displayed at the Imperial War Museum.
From this wreckage the watch was cast.
Christmas 2017 I was gifted a signed poster. This showed Ray Holmes’s Hurricane TM-B. It was also signed by him, and 13 other Battle of Britain RAF Pilots. I eventually had this framed and now hangs on my upstairs landing.
The making of the watch from the remains of the Merlin Engine. Click Picture to enlarge.
Finally the watch. Click Picture to enlarge.
RAF Mess Dinner – September 2018
I have picked up items over many years. But due to lack of space in the house I have been unable to display them.
In August 2018 I was approached by one of the RAF 100 Battle of Britain Officers Mess committee (who knows about my interest in the BoB). Who asked if I would display some items at their function (attended by two AVM’s) on the 13th September.
Initially I was a bit reluctant. Mainly due to the logistics of transporting very delicate items to the function, and then getting them back home in one piece! However, I asked myself if I wanted to keep my collection out of site in a loft. Or actually display it for other people to see.
Along came two work colleagues (1 ex-Army and 1 ex-RAF) who volunteered to help. John provided his van (which was a great help) and Steve provided assistance on the night and sort of helped to lift and shift.
For the Officers function I was asked to setup in the Foyer of the Conference Centre. A couple of Sundays before the event, I went down to have a look where things could go.
I was given this entire wall and corner for my display. Trouble is, that door, led straight to the Gents! Guests would be passing through and entering the main hall to dine (the doors on the right).
I ordered various size RAF ensigns online as I had at least 4 tables to cover. The cardboard you can see on the wall were templates for various pictures I wanted to display. Using the templates as a rough guide, I could work out what was going where. On the night, removable hooks (that could take up to 2lb) would secure the pictures. The hatch in the wall was where the cloakroom attendant would usually sit. Lucky for me, this room wasn’t being used on the night. So, I used it to store all my transport boxes!
I had been collecting instruments for years. Specifically for a 1939/1940 Hawker Hurricane Mk I. Just one instrument alludes me – The RPM Gauge. To fill the hole, I have a later Spitfire one. I will keep searching ….
For the very first time ever all my instruments and switches were going fitted in to the cockpit panel. I would like to say it all fitted perfectly. But it didn’t! Some drilling, filling and swearing was required. But eventually I finished the job. The next problem was how to actually display it. The entire panel if very heavy, and awkward to carry (evidenced on the night when I broke the compass card holder AND the gunsight spare bulb holder)! In the end, the entire panel was secured to a small table.
Both Messes were dining in the main conference hall. The decorators were in the week before. The transformation from dockyard to ready was pretty spectacular.
Before the transformation (and I had big ideas for those bad-boy projectors):
After a tidy up:
The big day came (and it was an all-day event for me). All my kit was shipped in, and it was a case of picking the spots in which to display the items. I used a small table for the instrument panel. A small table for the Aluminium Spitfire (which rotated slowly on a cake display stand which had a round mirror on top, so it reflected light on to the model). I initially had my instrument panel in the middle of the entrance to the dining room. But thought it might be safer out of the way, so moved it next to the TOTE board (which was setup for the 15th September 1940 – Battle of Britain Day).
One of the Signals Officers FIL flew Spitfires from D-Day to the end of the war. While serving with 616 Squadron he was one of the first pilots to fly Meteors. He kindly added his Flying Log Book to the table for people to take a look. My only regret being I did not get much of a chance to look at it.
One of the Flight Lieutenants was doing a 5 minute reading during a break in dinner. I dressed him up in genuine period kit. Irvin Flying Jacket, 1932 pattern Mae West, Type C Flying Helmet with radio connection and Oxygen tube, 1939 pattern flying boots, 1939 Flying Goggles, 1939 Gauntlets and (of course) a cravat.
The reading was about Flight Lieutenant James Brindley NICOLSON (39329) — No. 249 Squadron. Holder of the VC.
During an engagement with the enemy near Southampton on 16th August 1940, Flight Lieutenant Nicolson’s aircraft was hit by four cannon shells, two of which wounded him whilst another set fire to the gravity tank. When about to abandon his aircraft owing to flames in the cockpit he sighted an enemy fighter. This he attacked and shot down, although as a result of staying in his burning aircraft he sustained serious burns to his hands, face, neck and legs. Flight Lieutenant Nicolson has always displayed great enthusiasm for air fighting and this incident shows that he possesses courage and determination of a high order. By continuing to engage the enemy after he had been wounded and his aircraft set on fire, he displayed exceptional gallantry and disregard for the safety of his own life.
I was also asked if I would setup a display at the WO & Senior Rates Battle of Britain Dinner on the Saturday (15th September – actual Battle of Britain day). Late Friday afternoon, the day before the dinner, I took a wander down to the conference centre to make sure all the picture hooks were still in place. On arrival, I was told that the SR’s were not using the conference foyer, but their own entrance to their own Mess! Bit annoyed that they left it so late to tell me. However, Steve and I came up with a cunning plan!
Once again, I was given my own corner! Only this time, because the place had been recently decorated. Nothing was being hung on the walls. I ended up propping my pictures up against the wall where possible.
The final layout:
The Dining room was very well laid out. Both Officers & Senior Rates used each others items, which made sense. Unfortunately the Senior Rates could not organise a flypast of any RAF aircraft. Past or Present. I did remind them that they were actually HQ 10 Group during the BoB, and should have pulled seniority on all the other RAF Stations. Maybe next time!
I provided a micro-sd full of period film (all Cliffs of Dover footage), and a HD Digital Player. The Player interfaced with the Conference’s Media equipment. The result being, the movies played on the dual overhead screens. They were played on silent for obvious reasons for the most part. However, a low volume was achieved after eating.
RAF Mess Dinner – September 2019
I was asked to display at the 2019 Officers Mess Dinner. Fine by me!
I used a “trunk” from B & Q last year to keep my signed pictures safe. So a few weeks before the function, I paid B & Q another visit and acquired a further 4 “trunks”. I would have liked a 5th, but had to think about transporting them. As it happens Brian’s van and Steve’s Mercedes accommodated them OK. A 5th would have been a box to far.
I still had a few loose items (that would have benefited from having a 5th trunk), but they too fitted in the van. I didn’t bother with my Sector Control TOTE board this year. Neither did I bother with the 32″ LGHDTV. My Hurricane instrument panel was securely wrapped in bubble wrap, and the mannequin (used to display the 1940 pilot gear) also got there in one piece.
I had a few more items to display this year. Not least of which were 32 (I have 76) individually signed portraits of Battle of Britain Pilots. Only one of whom is still alive. Paul Farnes, (born 16 July 1918) who is 101. Utmost respect to you sir.
I also had an idea on how to play my various Battle of Britain movies. I had a 12″ LCD monitor setup on one of the trestle tables to play movies (looped), and a smaller monitor to (silently) play the explanation video of the story behind Ray Holmes’s and the Christopher Ward watch, TM-B.
On the day though, I couldn’t play the Ray Holmes media as there was no plug socket available. A trestle table displaying a marble bust of Ray, together with the TM-B timepiece was set up adjacent to the door to the bar. To be honest, I don’t think Ray got a 2nd glance. Once again, people walking past did not know what they were actually looking at, not their fault.
My Hawker Hurricane instrument panel had a bit of a makeover when I fitted a supporting “hoop”. This served two functions:
1. Allowed me to handle and carry the panel securely without bits breaking off!
2. Allowed me to fit the mounting bracket and mount the Barr & Stroud Mk II
Gunsight where it would have been fitted in the original cockpit.
Last year I built an Airfix 1/24 Hawker Hurricane. As flow by Wing Commander Ian Gleed (87 & 266 Squadron) during the Battle. But I didn’t finish it in time to show it. It was ready for this dinner, and was placed in “Widges” corner. Ian Gleed was killed in action over Tunisia in 1943.
I was asked to setup my collection in the Officers Mess foyer. So, at 1030 on the 12th September 2019. A mate (thanks Brian) and his van transported me and the kit into camp.
The early part of the morning was a bit of an initiative test. Whereby I had to find a table to put the bulk of the display on. Walking around the the Officers Mess, looking for a table as an un-escorted guest, made me feel a bit uncomfortable. Needless to say, I did find a spare table. I actually ended up with 3 x Small square tables, which did the job perfectly! In the photo, one can see those (very handy) trunks used to stow the various bits and bobs.
It took me approximately 7 hours to (carefully) unpack and position the items where people could see them. Like last year, I also brought along 4 small trestle tables. I wasn’t looking forward to repacking these items after the function. A lot of the wrappings were unmarked, which made putting things back the way the came out, hit and miss.
I wasn’t sure where to put the pilot portraits. I couldn’t hang them on the wall (recently painted). So I settle for putting them out along the floor in front of the display, so people could see them. (As it happens, 99% of the guests did not know that the actual pilots had signed their own portrait)!
This year I did a small corner for Sir Douglas Bader (although I totally disagreed with his Big-Wing theory). I also had a small display dedicated to Eric Nicholson VC. In the Picture (below), Bader is on the right, and Nicholson VC is in the middle (next to his Hawker Hurricane GN-A).
When I visited the RAF Hawkinge museum earlier this year (May). I purchased an inert .303 bullet (these are what the Spitfires and Hurricanes were firing). I wanted to display this next to the Luftwaffe equivalent. So spent a few months tracking down an inert 20mm canon round (as fired by the Me109). The .303 and the 20mm were displayed side by side, titled “England v Germany”! You can see the shells, towards the front, left hand side of the table.
Also on display (and I know this isn’t Battle of Britain) was Wing Commander Guy Gibsons Flying Log Book No2 (no one knows where Flying Log Book No1 is). Guy Gibson commanded the famous 617 Dam Buster Squadron. This Log Book was the one where he detailed the raids (Operation Chastise) on the 16-17 May 1943. This, understandably, created a lot of interest.
A week before the function, to my surprise, I found out that the people who were serving at RAF Rudloe Manor. Did not know that this place was HQ 10 Group during the Battle of Britain. RAF Rudloe Manor, in 1940 was called RAF Box. The group was re-formed on 1 June 1940 within Fighter Command to enable neighbouring No. 11 Group to function more efficiently. Its area of operation was the south-western region of England. Commanded by Air Vice Marshal Sir Quintin Brand, 10 Group supported 11 Group in the Battle of Britain by rotating squadrons, providing additional fighter support when needed, and supplying additional pilots.
I finished setting up just in time. Right at the back, is the Ray Holmes table, that got a bit overlooked as people entered/exited the bar. I will try to do better with this if I show again in 2020.
I was original going to setup my aluminum Spitfire next to the Hurricane. But I was asked if it could be displayed in the dining area. No problem – here it is. Sqn Ldr Brydon managed to retrieve the HQ 10 Group command board from the tunnels.
Here are the last of the photos. A work college (ex-RAF Sergeant) helps out as a guide and helps to pack up. He also provides the transport – So thanks Steve W.